|The research was applied at Station No. 1 belonging to the College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, to determine the most appropriate traits for improving barley grain yield during the season 2021-2022 by designing randomized complete blocks in the split plots with three replications, The purpose of studying the path way coefficient of the yield and its components for five cultivars of barley (Samir , Aksad 617, Amal, Buraq and Abba 265) and three seed rates 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1 were studied for characteristics of flowering, plant height, number of tillers, area of flag leaf, physiological maturity, crop growth rate, duration of seed filling, spike length, number of spikes and number of grains per spike. The weight of 1000 grains and harvest index as a selective function for improving grain yield. The traits gave a significant positive correlation with yield in most of the traits The seeding rate of 120 kg ha-1 gave the direct effect of the number of tillers m-2, the number of spikes m-2 and the weight of 1000 seeds on the yield of the plant positively 0.982, 2.803 and 1.432, and the seeding rate of 160 kg ha-1 gave the direct effect of the number of m-2 and the number of spikes M-2 amounted to 0.401 and 0.541 respectively, while the seeding rate was 200 kg ha-1 for the number of m-2, physiological maturity, number of spikes m-2, biological yield and harvest index, which amounted to 1.626, 1.074, 0.218, 0.503 and 0.517 respectively. We suggest focusing on programs Breeding and improvement on the characteristics of the number of tillers M-2 and the number of spikes M-2 is the best selective traits for all seed rates to improve the grain yield due to its significant correlation and direct and high impact on yield.|
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